Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) autonomic neuropathy and reflux esophagitis are common in chronic diabetics. To gauge the adequacy of peristalsis, high-resolution esophageal manometry is considered as a reliable test.
Aim and Objective: To compare the GI symptoms and high-resolution manometry parameters between type II diabetes patients and normal volunteers.
Materials and Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 35 known type II diabetes mellitus patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥6.5%) and 35 normal volunteers between the age group of 35 and 70 years. Sociodemographic details, drug history, disease duration, and GI symptoms were elicited among the study participants. HbA1c and High-resolution manometry were measured for all the participants.
Results: The frequency of epigastric pain (31.48%), heartburn (34.28%), pharyngeal irritation (31.43%), and loose stools (37.14%) were significantly higher in the diabetics. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed in mean basal expiratory pressure (MBEP) and mean basal inspiratory pressure (MBIP) values between diabetics and controls. There was a positive significant correlation between esophagogastric junction contractile integral and MBIP (r = 0.557), MBEP (r = 0.583), Median Integrated Relaxation pressure (r = 0.410).
Conclusion: Hyperglycaemia seems to be an independent risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Obesity significantly increments the occurrence of GERD in diabetics. Strict adherence to preventive measures such as weight reduction, diet management, glycaemic control will have a great impact on the occurrence of GERD in diabetics.
Key words: High-resolution Manometry; Hemoglobin A1c; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Gastrointestinal Symptoms