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The Absence of Mutations in the Exon 2 KRAS Gene in Several Ethnic Groups in North Sumatra May Not the Main Factor for Lung Cancer

Noni Novisari Soeroso, Fannie Rizki Ananda, Andika Pradana, Setia Putra Tarigan, Elisna Syahruddin, Dimas Ramadhian Noor.


Background: Rat Sarcoma (RAS) protein encoded Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP-ase) activity, known as a switch of cell proliferation. The mutation of this protein alters the early stage of carcinogenesis and along with the interaction with other oncogene drivers and environmental factors affect the clinical characteristics and prognosis in cancer patients, particularly lung cancer. Objective: This study aims to determine the Kristen Rat Sarcoma (KRAS) mutation in lung cancer patients in North Sumatera and evaluate factors that might contribute in the development of lung cancer in the absence of KRAS mutation. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study enrolled 44 subjects age > 18 year with the diagnosis of lung cancer. Histopathology preparation was obtained from surgery, bronchoscopy, and percutaneus needle biopsy then formed as paraffin-block. KRAS mutation was analyzed using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method with specific primer of exon 2 for evaluating the expression of RAS protein then continued with Sanger Sequencing Method at 12th and 13th codon. Results: The majority of subjects were male, age > 40 years old, bataknese, heavy smoker, with Adenocarcinoma. Almost all the subjects showed the expression of exon 2 of RAS protein in PCR examinations. However, Sequencing analysis using Bioedit Software, BLASTs and Finch T showed GGT GGC as protein base 219-224 which represented 12th and 13th Codon 12 and 13. The results interpreted there was no mutations of exon 2 of KRAS in North Sumatera Population. Conclusion: The absence of KRAS mutation in exon 2 in several ethnics in North Sumatera populations was not the main factors of lung cancer.

Key words: KRAS mutation, exon 2, lung cancer, Indonesian, ethnic variation.

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