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Review Article

SRP. 2020; 11(6): 842-857

Corona Virus Infectious Disease 19 (COVID-19) in Various Reviews

Huldani*, Herlina Uinarni, Bayu Indra Sukmana, Thomas Tommy, Muhammad Fadli Said, Edyson, Amiruddin Eso, RyantoKarobuana Sitepu, EviMustikawati Arifin, Ferra Olivia Mawu, Arie Adrianus Polim, IwanKurnia Effendi, Yustinus Charles Ariestiyanto, Hutasoit Charles Martamba, Wafa Ahdiya, Muhammad Hasan Ridhoni, Harun Achmad.

The current COVID-19 outbreak was caused by a new coronavirus,
SARS-CoV-2. It accesses host cells through the angiotensinconverting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which is expressed by
endothelial cells (EC) and very abundantly expressed in the lungs.
SARS-CoV-2 uses a surface glycoprotein (peplomer) called a spike to
access host cells and ACE2 has been revealed to be a co-receptor for
coronavirus entry. The antigen presentation of SARS-CoV mainly
depends on the MHC I molecule, but MHC II also contributes to the
presentation. Based on the mechanism of a common acute viral
infection, the antibody profile against the SARS-CoV virus contains
characteristic pattern of IgM and IgG production. By the end of week
12, SARS-specific IgM antibodies disappear, whereas IgG antibodies
can last in a longer period of time, which shows IgG antibodies can
mainly hold a protective role, and SARS-specific IgG antibodies mainly
are S-specific and N-specific antibodies. Clinical manifestations are
not only found in mucosa in the airways but also in the cardiovascular
system, kidneys, central nervous system, pregnancy, skin, oral cavity
and digestive system. The diagnose of clinical presentation of COVID19 is mainly based on a history of epidemiology, clinical
manifestations of pneumonia symptoms (for example, fever, dry
cough, myalgia, and shortness of breath) and several additional
examinations, include detection of nucleic acids, CT scanning,
immune identification technology (POCT) ) IgM / IgG, related to
enzymes, immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and blood culture.

Key words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV, IgG, IgM

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American Journal of Diagnostic Imaging


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