Objective: To determine the frequency of various causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding on the basis of
Study Design: A descriptive observational study.
st Place and Duration of Study: Study was done from 1 , January, 2015 to 31st December, 2017 at Pakistan
Railway General Hospital Rawalpindi.
Material and Methods: The study was carried out in the Department of Medicine at Railway Hospital. The
record of patients admitted with upper GI bleed through indoor/outdoor was retrieved from the Endoscopy
Unit. 100 Patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were selected in the study. The relevant data and endoscopic
findings were documented on Performa. The data was analyzed retrospectively.
Results: Out of 100 patients selected, 58(58%) were males and 42(42%) females. The mean age of 52.20 years ±
SD 15.88.The most common cause was esophageal varices (47.90%), followed by gastritis/esophagitis 23%,
peptic ulcer 14.58%. The malignant condition contributed 1.58 %. While in 9(9%) of patients, no cause of
bleeding was identified.
Conclusion: Variceal hemorrhage is the most frequent cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in our
Endoscopy, Peptic Ulcer, UGIB, Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed, Variceal Bleed.
Determination of Bioenergetic Parameters in Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Thomas SS, Pethe K
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Turbidity-Based MIC Assay and Characterization of Spontaneous Drug Resistant Mutants in Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Thomas SS, Kalia NP, Pethe K
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Drug Efficacy Testing in the Mouse Footpad Model of Buruli Ulcer.
Converse PJ, Almeida DV, Nuermberger EL
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Komm OD, Almeida DV, Converse PJ, Nuermberger EL
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Overview: Development of Drugs Against Mycobacterium ulcerans.
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