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J. Islam. Int. Med. Coll.. 2018; 13(3): 112-112


Frequency of Hyperandrogenism in Females with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Sumera Mehnaz, Rahat Akhtar, Nadia Taj.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:
Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) Stein Leventhal syndrome is one of the most common metabolic/endocrine system disorders in women of reproductive age. Females having PCOS present with a constellation of presentations associated with the androgen excess along with menstrual dysfunction that significantly influences their quality of life. They are at augmented risk of various morbidities, including insulin resistance (leading to type-2 diabetes), obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), infertility, cancer, and psychological disorders.
Stein and Leventhal described it, in 1935, as a disorder in which aapproximately 10 cysts of diameter from 2 and 9 mm appear in one or both ovaries with/without increase in ovarian volume exceeding 10 ml. As stated, it was considered as a disorder of women of reproductive age; however, recent evidences suggest it to be a lifelong syndrome, manifesting since prenatal age. Actually, rendering to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in youth varies between a minimum of 3% and a maximum of 26%. However, its prevalence in children is still unknown. PCOS costs significantly huge economic burden. Around five billion dollars are annually spent in America for screening and treatment of the disease and its complications e.g. infertility, hirsutism, diabetes mellitus etc. Women with PCOS are two times more likely to be admitted inpatient as compared to normal females. Hence, early and correct diagnosis is essential not only for the prevention of future comorbidities but also to diminish financial burden on the patient and society.
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY:
Numerous hypotheses developed to explain the pathophysiology of the disease. Insulin resistance might be contributing to hyperandrogenemia resulting in PCOS. The best theory about the pathophysiology of PCOS explains it as a multidimensional condition involving deviant insulin signalling, wild ovarian steroidogenesis, unwarranted oxidative stress secondary to mitochondrial dysfunction, and environmental/genetic factors. Oxidative stress can induce

Key words: Ferriman Gallweyscoring, Hirsutism, Hyperandrogenism, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.






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