Osteoma is a benign bone tumor that rarely affects animals. The most common bones involved with this tumor included the mandible, maxillofacial bones, and nasal sinuses. Definitive diagnosis is based on pathology findings which allow for differentiation with other bone lesions.
The patient, a five-year-old intact male Mongrel dog presented with a huge mandibular mass that involved both the right and left mandible, and led to dental occlusion. The radiography was performed and depicted the intense mass with a well-demarcated edge, a short transitional zone between normal and abnormal bone, and a smooth rounded radiopaque appearance. The investigation according to the fine needle aspiration showed the presence of oval to spindle shape cells with poorly malignancy criteria, fatty cells, reactive osteoblasts and osteoclasts based on a population of spindle-shaped cells, and low numbers of degenerated neutrophils, bacteria, and few macrophages. Then, the radiographic assessments and cytology findings demonstrated the osteoma and referred for surgical intervention. A unilateral mandibulectomy was performed, and the lesion was send to the histopathology laboratory. The histopathology evaluation showed osteocyte proliferation without malignancy features. The osteoblast cells also showed no atypical proliferation that endorses the osteoma tumor.
Although, mandibular and maxillofacial bone resection in small animals have different tolerations, this patient became a candidate for surgery for future better nutrition and prevention of facial deformity and dental malocclusion. Follow-up after osteoma is one of the most necessary post-operation treatments to check the regeneration of the mass. There are considerable data in this report that should regard this tumor as a possible differential diagnosis for mandibular tumors.
Key words: Osteoma, Mandibulectomy, Bone, Dog, Histopathology