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Original Article

. 2019; 10(4): 97-100


Inter-Relationships of Cholesterol With Cardiac Factors for Heart Patients

Jinseog Kim, Rabindra Nath Das, Youngjo Lee, Sabyasachi Mukherjee, Hyungmi An, Sunit Kumar Medda.

Abstract
Objectives: The role of Cholesterol and its relationship with some cardiac risk factors for heart patients are examined in the
current report using both Cholesterol level and two cardiac factors modeling.
Materials and methods: A real data set of 303 heart patients with 14 study characters are considered in the report. Statistical
joint generalized linear models (JGLMs) are considered using both Gamma & Log-normal distributions.
Results: It is observed from Cholesterol level modeling that Cholesterol level is higher for female heart patients (P=0.0013) than
male, or at older ages (P=0.0012) than younger. It is higher for the patients with high maximum heart rate (P=0.0877), or having
resting electrocardiographic at normal level (P=0.0107), or with thalassemia at reversal defect (P=0.0466) and at fixed defect
(P=0.0940) than at normal. It is also higher for the patients having heart disease diagnosis (angiographic disease status) value 0
(meaning less than 50% diameter narrowing) (P=0.0515) than others. Variance of Cholesterol level is higher for female patients
(P=0.0265) than male, and it increases as ST depression induced by exercise relative to rest (Oldpeak) (P=0.0095) increases.
From maximum heart rate modeling, it is noted that maximum heart rate increases as the Cholesterol level (P=0.0325) increases.
In addition, variance of maximum heart rate decreases as the Cholesterol level (P=0.0058) increases. Also from resting blood
pressure modeling, it is observed that mean resting blood pressure increases as the Cholesterol level increases, where it is a
confounder in the model.
Conclusions: Cholesterol levels should be examined regularly at older ages, along with the maximum heart rate achieved,
thalassemia status, and resting blood pressure for both male and female heart patients.

Key words: Blood pressure, Chest pain, Cholesterol level, Joint mean & dispersion modeling, Maximum heart rate, Non-constant variance.



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