Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is one of the common heart disease acquired in children in many regions of the world,
mainly in developing and underprivileged countries. This heart condition occurs following rheumatic fever caused by
streptococcal infection. It affects the functionality of heart valves. When untreated it may lead to medical complications
and even death. The disease mainly targeting children and young adults is responsible for cardiovascular morbidity and
mortality in people. Prevention and treatment of acute rheumatic fever plays an important role in controlling the disease.
Diagnosis of the disease is critically important because misdiagnosis of acute rheumatic fever can lead to worsening
of damage caused to heart valves and may also lead to premature death. This being a preventable problem, it can be
managed through surgeries to repair functions of cardiac valves. Alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking has shown
synergistic effect which may prove detrimental to cardiovascular health.
Key words: Rheumatic Heart Disease, Streptococcus, Diagnosis, Morbidity and Mortality, Prevention and Treatment.