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Original Article

JCDR. 2016; 7(1): 16-22


Atherosclerosis in the age group of less than 30 years in relation to panniculous fat thickness: An autopsy analysis

D. R. Mahadeshwara Prasad, Vijayalaxmi V. Suranagi, Ajay Kumar S, Prasanna S Jirli.


Abstract

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are a clear threat not
only to human health, but also to development and economy. Fatalities
due to chronic non-communicable diseases occur in prime of productive
life. Coronary heart disease such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction
or sudden death due to coronary thrombosis is well known NCD which is
mainly due to atherosclerosis. Information about the start of an atherosclerotic
process in arterial wall, as well as various stages of atherosclerosis and the
relationship of risk factors is evident from autopsy studies, as living subjects
can provide information about lesions when they are quite advanced.
Thus, the information gathered from autopsies in this study will assess the
earliest age at which atherosclerotic process starts to occur and age by
age progression of the process. Methodology: A cross-sectional pathobiology
study of atherosclerosis was conducted among 40 apparently normal
individuals within the age group of 30 years who died accidentally were
included in the study (28 males and 12 females; mean age, 22.42 years)
The histopathological report was tabulated and analyzed with respect to
age and life style. Age related progress in atherosclerosis was assessed in
correlation of panniculus fat thickness. Results: The results were based on
macroscopic and microscopic appearance of atherosclerotic
changes.
The earliest age at which microscopic atherosclerotic change was seen
at 7 years of age and the earliest macroscopic changes was seen at
17 years of age. Most of the subjects under 30 years of age showed
fatty streaks, the precursors to develop advanced plaques. Among
the risk factors smoking, obesity, and alcohol consumption surpass
the others. Conclusion: In stratification of risk, and in monitoring the
effects of intervention in obese children with non manifesting clinical
atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, assessment of the subclinical markers
of atherosclerosis may help in the evaluation of the progression of atherosclerosis.
The assignment of a “vascular age,” may be a useful method to
quantify the “end organ” effects of exposure to these various risks. Broad
social, cultural, legislative and policy changes that support healthy lifestyles
within families and communities need to be implemented to decrease the
prevalence of childhood obesity and its cardiovascular consequences in
communities.

Key words: Atherosclerosis, Panniculous fat, Dyslipidemias, Non-communicablediseases, Smoking, Tobacco chewing, Alcohol, Junk food.






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