The importance of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases of bacterial origin is well established. Despite the positive contribution of antibiotics in veterinary and clinical medicine, some of these molecules were regarded as harmful to both human and animal health with some undesirable effects. Moreover, microorganisms have developed resistance mechanisms to almost all commonly used antibiotics. Hence, there is an urgent need to find alternative ways against bacterial resistance to antibiotics which constitute a public health concern worldwide. The search for solutions to overcome this problem prompted researchers to seek new methods and molecules to continue the treatment of bacterial infections while limiting the spread of resistance and thwarting already resistant germs. The present study is new and current because it presents in a single document the most known alternatives to antibiotics. Therefore, the aim of this brief review was to discuss methods that can constitute a valid way to reduce the use or even replace conventional antibiotics. We found that phage therapy, probiotics, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, medicinal plants, nanoparticles, antibodies, and cytokines are among the most promising alternatives and more investigation should focus on them.
Key words: Antibiotics, alternatives, phage therapy, vaccines, antibodies, cytokines, nanoparticles, phytochemicals, plant extract.