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Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(4): 809-814

Polytrauma patients between severity and intervention: what truly predicts outcome

Ayman O. Nasr, Fatimah Mohammed Alsaeed, Zahra Ali Al-Safwani, Sarah Abdullah Alsameen, Zaynab Ali Al-Qallaf, Nora Tamim Alothman.

Background: Trauma is considered as a public health issue. It has a huge impact worldwide and it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Severe traumatic injuries are related to the extent of physiological and anatomical disruptions that are affected by various factors. We aimed at this study to compare the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Revised Trauma Score (RTS) to the regular clinical parameters to evaluate the extent and severity of trauma and their relation to the different outcomes.
Methodology: We analyzed all the adult traumatic patients acutely admitted to King Fahad University Hospital (KFUH) between January 1st and December 31st, 2016. We examined patients' general demographic data, trauma characteristics and initial clinical parameters, and their relation to outcome using mean, standard deviation, p-value, and Chi-square test.
Results: One-fifty-five patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall mortality rate was 5%. Sixty-three percent had non-severe injuries (ISS < 15), while only 37% had severe injuries (ISS > 15). The severity of the injury was significantly related to length of stay, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) admission, altered O2 saturation, altered Glasgow Coma Scale, altered RTS, and packed red blood cells transfusion. Regarding the location of trauma, there was a significant relationship with thoracic, abdominal, and vascular injuries.
Conclusion: Severe injuries depending on ISS (>15) were associated with worse outcomes, which supports our hypothesis.

Key words: Trauma, outcome, resuscitation, severity, injury, score

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