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Research Article

JCR. 2021; 8(2): 1350-1363

Effects of Co-articulation on Pakistani English: A Case Study of Multilingual Speakers in Islamabad

Saima Umer, M. Qaisar Kamran, Dr. Ali Ahmad.

The postmodern era is linguistically hybrid; therefore, the speakers of different languages all over the world show
the characteristics of Assimilation, Elision and Dissimilation in their casual, everyday speech. Most of the time, the
patterns of these features of connected speech are as per the rules of Received Pronunciation (RP) and occur in a
certain context. However, these patterns of assimilation, elision and dissimilation are quite random in nature and at
times take place due to L1 interference. Therefore, the study intends to unravel these patterns of assimilation, elision
and dissimilation in the English of multilingual speakers whose native language is Punjabi employing Generative
Phonology (Chomsky & Halle, 1968) as theoretical framework. For the said purpose, 24 Punjabi female university
students have been selected to analyze the production of English words in their connected speech to investigate the
effects of co-articulation. As the phonemic inventory, syllable template and the phonotactic constraints of Punjabi
and English are different, it is assumed that the Pakistani English language users whose L1 is Punjabi apply the
Punjabi phonotactic constraints on English which cause differences in co-articulatory process in their L2 production.
Therefore, the paper aims at analyzing the impact of co-articulation on Pakistani English in connected speech of
Punjabi speakers to explore how L1 (Punjabi) interference effects the phonological aspects and allows variation in
Pakistani English (PE). The findings suggest that Punjabi speakers also make use of assimilation, elision,
dissimilation to some or more extent while speaking English though the patterns may vary from person to person.
Moreover, the significance of the study lies in the fact that it tends to endorse the claim that Pakistani English is a
distinct and separate variety and the influence of native variety on English might be the main cause of this

Key words: Co-articulation, Pakistani English, Punjabi Speakers, Generative Phonology

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