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Research Article

EEO. 2020; 19(4): 4050-4058


Waiting for miracles: A socio-political reading of Muhammad Hanif’s Our Lady of Alice Bhatti

Athar Farooq, Imdad Ullah Khan, Manzoor Ilahi, Ghani Rehman.

Abstract
Throughout the world, states are expected to perform a significant function as the guarantor of law and order, economic opportunities, health services, education, etc. Whereas strong states fulfill most of these responsibilities, weak states struggle to develop and maintain a vibrant and functioning society in their polity. The text of “Our lady of Alice Bhatti” by Muhammad Hanif presents Pakistan as a weak state where citizens constantly struggle for survival and where they spend their lives one day at a time. There are varied parameters to judge the strength or weakness of a state. In this article, qualitative content analysis is used to frame data analysis. The text of Our lady of Alice Bhatti is analyzed according to the indicators provided by the model of Rice and Patrick to determine state stability. The textual analysis of the novel shows that it portrays the state of Pakistan as weak as it is unable to provide basic amenities of life to its people

Key words: fiction, survival, Pakistan, weak state, citizen, law and order, political indicators, lawlessness






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The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.