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Research Article

EEO. 2021; 20(5): 7629-7640


SUNNI-SHIA CONFLICT IN KURRAM, PAKISTAN: GENESIS, FACTORS AND REMEDIES

Dr. Farmanullah, Dr. Shahbaz Khan, Syed Jafar, Dr. Muhammad Ayaz, Dr. Irfan Ullah.

Abstract
Kurram, tribal district, formerly known as Kurram Agency, located in the northwest of Pakistan and also bordering on three sides with Afghanistan, has a long history of sectarian animosities. It is blazed in sectarian conflicts almost after every five to ten years. The chronological order of the sectarian conflicts taken place in Kurram are 1961, 1971, 1987, 1996, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The spate of sectarian violence in Kurram has many local, national and international factors. The local factors comprise trust deficit, chanting objectionable slogans in processions, extremist clergy, fanaticism of the youth, educational vulnerability, the infiltration from Orakzai, Khyber and North Waziristan and availability of the weapons. National factors include Zia’s Islamization, extremist organizations, negligence of the government and the Political Administration. International factors encompass the influx of Afghan refugees, Talibanization, Islamic Revolution in Iran and the external patronage. The analysis has been made in the light of primary data collected through questionnaire from 300 respondents on basis of purposive sampling. The present study is an attempt to highlight the genesis, factors and remedies of the sectarian violence in Kurram in a multi-dimensional way.

Key words: Kurram, Sunni-Shia Conflict, Sectarian violence, factors of Sunni-Shia Conflict, extremism, militancy, sectarian conflict, remedies of Sunni-Shia Conflict.






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