New agricultural practices have been developed to improve food production by using more efficient pesticides and fertilizers i.e. current requirement to feed growing world population. These technologies suffer from major drawbacks such as these technologies can lead to the uncontrolled release of unwanted substances into the environment, with potential contamination of soil and groundwater. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and unsafe chemical pesticides can lead to environmental pollution and serious health problems. Today, nanotechnology is emerging as promising approach for improving agricultural production and remediation of contaminated sites. Nanotechnology is one of the fifth revolutionary technologies of the century after biotechnology. It has shown a wide range of applications in agriculture, biology, chemistry, electronics, materials science, medicine, and physics. Ecological nanoscience products and processes have an impact on the socio-economic aspects of maintaining a clean environment for sustainable development. Nanotechnology is a broad and interdisciplinary field of research and development activities that is growing exponentially worldwide. Nanotechnology will provide the capacity to create affordable products with dramatically improved performance.
Key words: Agricultural Sustainability, Environmental Sustainability, Nanofertilizers, Nanopesticides, Nanotechnology,