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Physico-chemical characterization of ayurvedic swarna bhasma by using SEM, EDAX, XRD and PSA

Aashish Kumar Netam, Vikas Pankaj Bhargava, Rambir Singh, Poonam Sharma.


Introduction: Swarna Bhasma (SB) is a charismatic Ayurvedic drug known for its miraculous therapeutic functions for protecting human health. Consistency in the efficacy and safety of SB has largely been attributed to its manufacturing process. The quality assurance of SB has been based on the parameters listed in ancient texts of Ayurveda, however, there is a need for machine-based, reliable and repeatable characterization methods for estimation of gold content, particle shape and size, etc. Methods: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics of SB manufactured by Shree Baidyanath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd. Jhansi, India. SB was characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive-ray analysis (EDX) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). Results: In XRD analysis, the diffraction pattern showed the presence of four major peaks at 2θ value of 37.170, 44.350, 64.530 and 77.500, which corresponds to gold as per the International Centre for Diffraction Database (ICDD) reference. The EDX results showed high purity of gold (97.40% w/w) in the sample along with Na, Fe, Al, K, Ag and Ca in trace amounts. The mean particle size of gold is found to be 2.633 μm by PSA. The particle size by SEM is in the range of 3-4 µm. The morphological characteristics of the gold particles were spherical and mostly irregular in shape and seen to be agglomerated. Conclusion: The physico-chemical analysis of each batch of samples of SB should be carried out by the manufacturing companies, to rule out variations during manufacturing practices for ensuring its therapeutic efficacy and safety.

Key words: Baidyanath, Gold, Rasa Shastra, Swarna Bhasma, SEM, XRD

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