Background: The economic burden induced by all types of Diabetes mellitus (DM) and their complications has reached 1.8% of gross domestic product (GDP) globally. The economic burden of diabetes mellitus in Bosnia & Herzegovina (B&H) is still unknown. Objective: To investigate the economic burden of diabetes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the costs of diagnosing and treating diabetes and its complications. Methods: The study was designed as a top-down cost of illness study, based on prevalence, analyzing both direct and indirect costs of DM and complications caused by DM. All types of DM were taken into account, and estimates were based on total B&H population. Costs of services per patient were calculated by multiplication of share of treated population, service utilization data and unit costs. Results: Annual economic burden associated with DM in B&H is around 189 million euro (739 euro per patient), which makes 1.11% of gross domestic product (GDP) of B&H in 2020 (16,993,101,523 euro, according to the World Bank data). The largest part of this burden was created by DM medication and costs of managing complications (heart failure and stable angina being major cost drivers among the complications), followed by laboratory tests and physician visits. Conclusion: Total costs of DM per patient in B&H are within the range of costs in other Central-Eastern European (CEE) countries, reflecting significant economic burden, but also determination of healthcare payers in B&H to provide optimal management of DM in congruence with contemporary clinical guidelines.
Key words: diabetes mellitus, cost of illness, burden of disease, complications.