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Research Article

EEO. 2021; 20(1): 3016-3023


The Use of Apologies` Strategies in Pashto and English Languages from the Perspective of Politeness

Dr. Mian Shah Bacha, Dr.Rabia Rustum.

Abstract
This research is aimed at how apologies strategies are expressed in Pashto and English. A questionnaire of open role play scenarios of requesting and apologising was used to collect data from Pashto language respondents and data collected by Reiter were compared with the Pashto language. The questionnaire was adapted from Reiter's study (2000) and translated into Pashto for respondents who spoke that language. The questionnaire consisted of 24 role play scenarios (12 requests and 12 apologies), and each set of the questionnaire took 45 to 50 minutes to complete. Peshawar University, University of Malakand, Islamia College University, Peshawar, Swat University, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal, and a Pos University each had ten students. The methodological framework of Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper (1989) was used. The data on apology strategies in both linguistic cultures hold up Blum-Kulka, House, and Kasper's claims (1989). In both British English and Pashto, the use of IFID and the "expression of responsibilities strategies" occurred in varying degrees, but the use of other semantic and sub-formulaic terms did not. The findings of the apology strategies also indicate that they were implemented in various ways in British English and Pashto, with the British respondents expressing a clear preference for the lexical expression "I am sorry." Adverbs like dreadfully, awfully, really, very, really, and terribly were used to emphasize the strength of this lexical type. In an Anglo-Saxon dominated milieu, such amplified ways for the expression of apology strategies occurred as a convention for conflict avoidance, which was perceived to be a redrassal for the addressee's negative face. The Pashto respondents, on the other hand, used non-intensified ways for expressing regret, but they also used IFID intensified in some of the strategies. Bakhana Gwarama (forgive me), Mazrat Koma (I regret/ apologise), Khafa Nashai (never mind), Afsos Koma (I am sorry), Mata Der Afsos De (I am extremely sorry), and Mafi Gwarama were among the expressions the Pashto respondents chose (I seek forgiveness). When the offence was going to be serious, these types of apologies occurred in both formal and informal contexts. The findings also indicate that British respondents used more intense apology expressions. The Pashto respondents did not use such intense forms of apology speech, implying that the negative face of the adressee was not needed. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the severity, seriousness, and nature of the offences influenced the strategies used in both linguistic cultures' role play situations.

Key words: apologies, politeness, requests, avoidance, redressal






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The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.