Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the triad of microangiopathy hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal damage. It is one of the most known causes of acute renal damage in children. The current review aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of HUS, whether primary or secondary to carfilzomib, especially in Saudi Arabia, and to show the drugs that could be used in the treatment of this condition. PubMed and Elton B. Stephens Co Information Services were chosen as the search databases for the publications used within the study. Previous studies were reviewed and discussed approaching prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of typical and atypical HUS among Saudi and non-Saudi studies around the world. The authors identified seven relevant articles. Our review of the published data indicates that HUS is a rare disease with a prevalence rate ranging from 0.7 to 8 cases/100,000 population per year with significant seasonal and geographical and geographical variability. The highest prevalence of Post-diarrheal HUS (D+ HUS) was reported among children younger than 6 years who present in the late
summer and autumn months. The mainstay of treatment was supportive of early hydration, blood transfusions if needed, and management of potential complications, including acute kidney injury, malignant hypertension, and neurological sequelae. Efforts to improve outcomes and decrease complications may include the following: (a) earlier referral, (b) better diagnosis with identification of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, (c) early dialysis support, (d) plasma exchange, (e) avoiding co-morbidities, and (f) better detection of familial complement deficiencies as clinical trials have shown that eculizumab to be more effective than plasma therapy in a HUS due to complement dysregulations.
Key words: Prevalence, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, carfilzomib, Saudi Arabia