In 2019, a new variant of coronavirus emerged that put the whole world on a standstill due to its unprecedented spread and morbidity. Since then, scientists have been working on several theories to explain the origin and pathogenesis of the virus. Over this period of time, it has been observed clinically that individual variation exists in the way this virus infects people, its symptomatology and sequelae. The pathophysiology is still unclear. This review was taken up to consolidate all the available information until date about current theories of etiopathogenesis with an understanding of potential therapeutic targets on the mechanisms. This review also highlights the gray areas that need to be addressed in the future. Research papers published up to December 7, 2020 were included based on a search on PubMed, Google Scholar, etc., to get the latest relevant literature on this topic. Coronavirus expresses differently in different individuals, affecting different organ systems, and having variable severity. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not completely understood. Due to the lack of definite curative therapy, it is essential to explore the basic pathophysiology so as to develop more effective and target-based therapies in the future.
Key words: COVID-19; Current Theories; Pathophysiology; Potential Targets; Etiopathogenesis; Unprecedented Spread