Home|Journals|Articles by Year Follow on Twitter

Directory for Medical Articles
 

Open Access

Review Article

Ger. J. Vet. Res.. 2021; 1(3): 19-27


Infection with the Avian Coronavirus: A recurring problem in turkeys

Mohamed H. Houta, Olusegun O. Awe, Ahmed Ali.

Abstract
Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) is a Gammacoronavirus causing acute contagious enteritis in young turkeys, leading to impaired growth, low feed conversion, and increased mortality. The TCoV infections, in association/combination with other enteropathogenic viruses, bacteria & protozoa, are associated with poult enteritis-mortality syndrome (PEMS) in turkeys of 1-4 weeks age. In this review, classification & genotyping of TCoV, the implications of its recombination, and challenges to develop efficient vaccines against it are discussed. Though TCoV is monophyletic with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) with a sequence similarity of ≥86, however a classification scheme gathering all avian coronaviruses (ACoVs) is not established. Based on the N gene, ACoVs are classified into five clades. Clades 1 & 2 (chickens), Clade 3 (pigeon) Clade 4 (duck), and Clade 5 (goose). The Spike (S) gene of ACoVs has shown exceptional lability of being easily switched with multiple recombination events suggesting that TCoV may be an IBV recombinant. Recombination events altered the pathogenicity, host specificity, and tissue tropism of TCoVs. Attempts to develop attenuated, inactivated, DNA, and virus-vectored vaccines are ongoing. Experimentally, the attenuated TCoV strains induced strong humoral and cellular immune responses and completely protected against the homologous challenge but not heterologous TCoV challenge. Meanwhile, genetically engineered vaccines, either DNA or virus vectored vaccines, are limited with either late induction of a protective immune response and/or inability of the elicited antibody to neutralize virus infection and protect against virus challenge. Future research should focus on improving vaccine efficiency against TCoVs by developing more immunogenic vaccines, determining the appropriate dosing regimens, and include potent adjuvants

Key words: Turkey coronavirus, TCoV, Turkeys, PEMS, Immunity, Vaccines



Similar Articles

Contributing factors common to COVID‑19 and gastrointestinal cancer.
Kostoff RN, Briggs MB, Kanduc D, Shores DR, Kovatsi L, Drakoulis N, Porter AL, Tsatsakis A, Spandidos DA
Oncology reports. 2022; 47(1):

induces innate cytokine responses that potentially provide a protective benefit against COVID-19: A single-arm, double-blind, prospective trial combined with an cytokine response assay.
Kageyama Y, Nishizaki Y, Aida K, Yayama K, Ebisui T, Akiyama T, Nakamura T
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2022; 23(1): 20

Pandemic Analytics: How Countries are Leveraging Big Data Analytics and Artificial Intelligence to Fight COVID-19?
Mehta N, Shukla S
SN computer science. 2022; 3(1): 54

Survey on COVID-19-related mortality associated with occupational infection during the first phase of the pandemic: A systematic review.
Senia P, Vella F, Mucci N, Dounias G, Trovato A, Marconi A, Ledda C, Rapisarda V, Vitale E
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2022; 23(1): 10

Vaccines Against Vector-Borne Diseases.
Kitsou C, Pal U
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2022; 2411(): 269-286


Full-text options


Latest Statistics about COVID-19
• pubstat.org


Add your Article(s) to Indexes
• citeindex.org






Covid-19 Trends and Statistics
ScopeMed.com
CiteIndex.org
CancerLine
FoodsLine
PhytoMedline
Follow ScopeMed on Twitter
Author Tools
eJPort Journal Hosting
About BiblioMed
License Information
Terms & Conditions
Privacy Policy
Contact Us

The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
ScopeMed is a Database Service for Scientific Publications. Copyright ScopeMed Information Services.



ScopeMed Web Sites