Home|Journals|Articles by Year Follow on Twitter

Directory for Medical Articles

Open Access

Research Article

EEO. 2020; 19(3): 2378-2385

Probing Real Economic Growth through Institutional Quality and Fiscal Policy in Pakistan

Ayesha Qamar, Muhammad Saleem Ashraf, Ghulam Ghouse, Aribah Aslam.

The study examined the effect of institutional development and fiscal policy on real economic growth.It employed Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniqueto deal with potential endogeneity, which may arise in the presence of institutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to construct an index of institutional quality. The real economic growth in Pakistan covering the period from1984 to 2018 provides ample evidences that(i) tax rates have negative and insignificant impact on real economic growth (ii) public expenditures on social indicators helps in augmenting real growth (iii) link between institutional quality and real economic growth is positive but insignificant (iv) increase in investment pushes up real growth and lagged value of GDP also helps in promoting growth (v) trade openness restricts real growth. Accordingly, it is suggested that government should enhance expenditures on social indicators and for that purpose there is need to increase tax to GDP ratio through expanding the tax base; not the tax rate and it is vital to restructure institutions which help to improve economic growth; i.e. accountability, equity, security and transparency.

Key words: Institutions, GMM, Political economy, PCA, Real economic growth.

Similar Articles

Growth differentiation factor 5: a neurotrophic factor with neuroprotective potential in Parkinson's disease.
Goulding SR, Anantha J, Collins LM, Sullivan AM, O'Keeffe GW
Neural regeneration research. 2022; 17(1): 38-44

The unintended consequences of the pandemic on non-pandemic research activities.
Walker J, Brewster C, Fontinha R, Haak-Saheem W, Benigni S, Lamperti F, Ribaudo D
Research policy. 2022; 51(1): 104369

Health technology assessment and economic evaluation: Is it applicable for the traditional medicine?
Chen Y
Integrative medicine research. 2022; 11(1): 100756

Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor transfection in dopamine neurons using neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles reverses 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration.
Fernandez-Parrilla MA, Reyes-Corona D, Flores-Martinez YM, Nadella R, Bannon MJ, Escobedo L, Maldonado-Berny M, Santoyo-Salazar J, Soto-Rojas LO, Luna-Herrera C, Ayala-Davila J, Gonzalez-Barrios JA, Flores G, Gutierrez-Castillo ME, Espadas-Alvarez AJ, Martínez-Dávila IA, Nava P, Martinez-Fong D
Neural regeneration research. 2022; 17(4): 854-866

Family support and posttraumatic growth among tourism workers during the COVID-19 shutdown: The role of positive stress mindset.
Luu TT
Tourism management. 2022; 88(): 104399

Full-text options

Latest Statistics about COVID-19
• pubstat.org

Add your Article(s) to Indexes
• citeindex.org

Covid-19 Trends and Statistics
Follow ScopeMed on Twitter
Author Tools
eJPort Journal Hosting
About BiblioMed
License Information
Terms & Conditions
Privacy Policy
Contact Us

The articles in Bibliomed are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
ScopeMed is a Database Service for Scientific Publications. Copyright ScopeMed Information Services.

ScopeMed Web Sites