Objective: To review and analyze the incidence, causes, management and results oftreatment in patients who were treated for nasal bleeding.
Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted on patients of
epistaxis, admitted to Combined Military Hospital Multan during a two years period from
January 2005 to December 2006. Incidence, sex, age, cause of bleeding, associated clinical
features, treatment and results were noted.
Results: During the study period, 1366 patients were admitted to hospital with various ENT
diseases. Out of these, 109 (7.98%) had epistaxis as one of presenting complaints. Incidence
was more in winter and spring months. Out of 109 patients, 76 were males (69.72 %) and 33
females (30.28%). The mean age was 35.06+19 years (range =3-83 years). Mean hospital
stay was 4.98+4 days (1-27 days). The most common causes of epistaxis were idiopathic
(31.19%), trauma (15.6%), infections (14.68%), hypertension (12.84%), Bleeding disorders
and blood dyscasias (11.01%). Sixty-six patients (60.55%) had anterior and 25 (22.93%)
had posterior bleeding, while in remaining bleeding site could not be determined. Eightynine
(81.66%) patients responded to conservative treatment and in 20 (18.35%) patients
some surgical procedures had to be performed.
Conclusion: The common causes of epistaxis were idiopathic, trauma, infections,
hypertension and bleeding disorders. Most of the cases responded to conservative measures
but in some cases surgical treatment had to be done. Further research is required to know
about the underlying causes and optimal management of epistaxis. (Rawal Med J
Epistaxis, nasal bleeding, nasal trauma, nasal packing.
Pigmented median raphe cyst of the penis that developed after middle age without infection or trauma history.
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The heart surgery forum. 2021; 24(3): E474-E478
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Thomas EA, Owens GP, Keller EM
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Sameh Said Mohammed, Moaz Hashim, Ibtisam Ghashimi, Saja AlQahtani, Sondos AlQahtani, Aziza Badawi, Rawan AlGhamdi
International Journal of Medicine in Developing Countries. 2021; 5(1): 69-74