Objective: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of general community
regarding relationship of typhoid fever, diarrheal diseases and hepatitis with unhygienic
food, water and un-hygienic practices at two urban slum areas of Islamabad.
Methods: A Cross-sectional survey was carried out between October 2003 and April
2004 in two urban squatter settlements of Islamabad, involving 200 households. Sociodemographic
characteristics and awareness levels were assessed by uni-variate analysis.
Results: 91.5% of the respondents were using un-boiled water mainly because of
economic constraints. General community was well aware regarding relationship of
typhoid fever, diarrheal diseases and hepatitis with unhygienic food and unboiled water
but the practices did not match the level of knowledge. Among children, jaundice
(signifying hepatitis) was the most prevalent sign with 1.7±0.3 episodes per year. Among
adults, typhoid fever was most prevalent with 1.2±0.1 episodes per year.
Conclusions: Community was well aware of the un-hygienic practices and diseases
associated with them, but were un-able to apply the principles of hygiene in their daily
lives. Provision of safe drinking water to these communities can reduce burden of
diseases substantially. Reinforcement messages to the community with respect to
modulating their daily lives on the principles of hygiene, which are easy to follow, need
to be given. (Rawal Med J 2008;33:67-70).
Hygiene, K.A.P, Diseases, Safe drinking Water.
Effects of hydrogen water treatment on antioxidant system of litchi fruit during the pericarp browning.
Yun Z, Gao H, Chen X, Chen Z, Zhang Z, Li T, Qu H, Jiang Y
Food chemistry. 2021; 336(): 127618
Ecological risk assessment of current-use pesticides and biocides in soils, sediments and surface water of a mixed land-use basin of the Pampas region, Argentina.
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Li JY, Lyu MK, Li XJ, Jiang YM, Xie JS
Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology. 2021; 32(4): 1250-1258
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Chaachouay N, Benkhnigue O, Douira A, Zidane L
Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2021; 189(): 24-32
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AssunĂ§ĂŁo R, TwaruĹĽek M, Kosicki R, Viegas C, Viegas S
Toxins. 2021; 13(2):
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Maillard M, Eche-Gass A, Ung M, Brice A, Marsili S, Montastruc M, Puisset F, Thomas F
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2021; ():