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Original Research

RMJ. 2008; 33(1): 56-57

Chemical Composition of Non-Infected Upper Urinary Tract Calculi

Ahmad Rahman,* Khalid Farooq Danish,*Afsheen Zafar,*Ashfaq Ahmad,**A. Rashid Chaudhry.


Objectives: To document the chemical composition of urinary calculi at our institution.
Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Urology Department, Rawalpindi
General Hospital, and IIMC-T Railway General Hospital, Rawalpindi. It included 428
patients under going surgery or receiving Extracorporial Shock Wave Lithotripsy
(ESWL) for urinary calculi over a period of 3.5 years. All patients were screened for
urinary tract infection by urine routine examination, urine culture and ultrasonography.
Stones/fragment or gravel retrieved were sent for chemical analysis.
Results: Calcium was present in 92% calculi. Out of these, 34% were pure calcium
oxalate calculi. Struvite stones were 5%, pure uric acid calculi 3% whereas mixed calculi
containing urates were 37%. There were no cysteine stones found in this study.
Conclusion: Calcium containing mixed stones remain the commonest variety of renal
calculi encountered in this study. (Rawal Med J 2008;33:54-55).

Key words: Urolithiasis, Pakistan, stone chemical composition.

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