Extreme habitats that harbor novel and potential microbes for biotechnology applications have been reported around the world. The potential extremophilic microbiomes can survive at wide variety of conditions, including extreme temperatures, salinity, water scarcity, and pH levels. These stress adaptive microbes have been isolated and characterized from all three domains of life (eukarya, archaea, and bacteria,) in which the member of domain archaea are the most pre-dominant extremophiles and have a wide range of applications in various fields. Overall, the extremophilic microbiomes belong to different phylum i.e. Euryarcheota, Crenarchaeota, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria Actinobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, Basidiomycota, and Ascomycota. The most pre-dominant genera of extremophiles are Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Pontibacillus, Paenibacillus, Nitrincola, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Pseudomonas, Geobacillus, Haloferax, Jeotgalicoccus, Oceanobacillus, Psychrobacter, Rhodococcus, Sediminibacillus, Sporosarcina and Staphylococcus. The beneficial extremophilic microbiomes plays significant role for agro-environmental sustainability as stress-adaptive microbes have capability to produce agro-industrially important bioactive compounds such as indole acetic acids, gibberrellic acids, cytokinin, hydrogen cyanides, ammonia, siderophores, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and extracellular microbial hydrolytic enzymes. The stress-adaptive and stress-active bioactive compounds and extremozymes are used in new biological processes those are faster, more accurate, more specific and safer for agriculture as well as environment. The discovery of novel and potential extremophilic microbiomes open up new possibilities for industrially, pharmaceutically and agriculturally important enzymes and bioactive compounds for a variety of applications in agriculture, biomedicine, pharmaceuticals, bioenergy and the environment.
Key words: Biodiversity, Biotechnological Applications, Extremophiles, Stress-Adaptive Microbes, Sustainability,