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Original Article

IJMDC. 2020; 4(1): 137-142

Etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and treatment of dry eye disease

Omar Obaid Alharbi, Ghada Mohammed Beyari, Wafa Ahmedfouad Saber, Abdullah F. Alotaibi, Ahmed Yousuf Bukannan, Yasmina Nezar Mohamed.


Background: Dry eye disease (DED) or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. This systematic review article discusses the prevalence, etiology, risk factors, and current medications of DED.
Methodology: A systematic review search, utilizing MEDLINE and PubMed, was performed to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye, published from 2009 to 2019. The word "dry eye" and "women" were searched in combination with one or more of the following words: prevalence, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, and quality of life. A manual search was also performed based on citations in the published literature.
Results: Prevalence of DED in studies varies in the Middle East; from 8.7% in Iran to 32.1% in Saudi Arabia. 35% of the Saudi population, aged 40 years and older in Riyadh, had DED. Age, sex (female gender), diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, topical medication, and autoimmune disorders are known risk factors for DED.
Conclusion: It is fundamental to diagnose patients with DED accurately, recognizing the major cause behind their dry eyes. Careful and accurate consideration of patient-reported symptoms should be incorporated into a DED treatment.

Key words: Dry eye disease, women, etiology, prevalence, risk factors

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