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Original Research

RMJ. 2009; 34(1): 95-97

Precipitating Factors of Hepatic Encephalopathy

Mohammad Tariq,* Saleem Iqbal,** Naji ullah Khan,* Rabia Basri***.


Objective: To analyze the precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy
Methods: Two hundred admitted patients with liver cirrhosis with HE from
1st January 2006 to 30th September 2006 were included in the study. Grades
of HE and Child’s Pugh classification was also determined.
Results: Out of 200 patients, 106 (53%) were male and 94 (47%) female.
Amongst the precipitating factors, 30% had constipation, 29% upper
gastrointestinal bleed (GIB), 8% spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP),
19.5% urinary tract infection (UTI), 2.5% lower respiratory tract infection
and 3% had diarrhea. There was hyponatremia in 1.5% and hypokalemia in
4.5% patients. High protein diet in 0.5% and bromazepam intake in 1%
were presumed precipitating factors and 0.5% had antituberculous therapy
induced liver injury.
Conclusion: Constipation, gastrointestinal bleeding and infections were the
most common precipitating factors of HE in our patients. (Rawal Med J

Key words: Hepatic Encephalopathy, liver cirrhosis, precipitating factors, portosystemic encephalopathy.

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