In forensics, analysis of biological samples for identification and verification is quite often and usually very challenging. Y-Short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) and associated Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are the most widely used markers in forensic analysis due to their typing simplicity and high level of diversity. The panels of Y-STRs presently used in forensics are a promising tool in fatherhood cases, especially when the suspected father is not present and in population genetics also to answer different questionable paternal lineages amongst many worldwide human populations. Male Specific region of Y- Chromosome or Non-recombining region (NRY) does not undergo recombination. This unique characteristic of Y-Chromosome increases its significance in field of forensics. This review illustrates the time-scale development of Y-Chromosome Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STRs) marker kits applied in forensics and population genetics. The content depicts the advancements in the field of STR multiplex PCR systems with improved proficiency, reactivity and inhibitor tolerance. These Y-STR markers kits are composed of di, tri, tetra, penta and hexa nucleotide repeats. Tetra nucleotide markers are most frequently used as compared to other nucleotides. Initial kits (minimal haplotype) had very few markers but now using multiplex PCR based system kit like SureID® PathFinder Plus kit a scientist can analyze more than 40 markers in a reaction with better discriminating power and greater efficacy. In the present review, significance of Y-Chromosomal STRs in forensics and population genetics with various Y-STR markers kit is discussed.
Y-Chromosomes, Short tandem repeats, Y-STR Kits, Forensics, Population genetics.
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