Background: Conversion of inorganic metals, minerals and precious stones into bioabsorbable form is the foremost aim of Rasashastra (branch of Ayurveda which deals with minerals, metals & chemicals). Vanga (Tin) is mentioned under Dhatu Varga (Group of Metallic drugs) and it is categorised as Putiloha (Group of inferior metals) in the literature of Rasashastra. Preparation of Vanga Bhasma (Calcined Tin) needs specific methods like Shodhana (Purification), Jarana (Oxidation)with Ashwatha Twak Yavakuta Choorna [Course powder of Ficus religiosa Linn.] and Marana (Calcination by repeated heat cycles)after triturating with Kumari Swarasa (juice of Aloe Vera) which is repeated till Bhasma Siddha Lakshnas (Chief Desired Characteristics of ash) are obtained.
Objectives: To prepare Vanga Bhasma as per classical method and analyse it through X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) to ascertain the changes happening in each stage of preparation.
Materials and Methods: Vanga Bhasma was prepared as per the classical guidelines. Analytical studies of Vanga Bhasma was carried out with XRF study; before Shodhana for Raw drug, after Samanya Shodhana (General purification of Metallic group),Vishesha Shodhana (Specific Purification process of Tin), Jarana, after 1st, 4th and 7th Calcination Cycle to analyse major elements, minor elements and trace elements in each stage.
Observations and results: It was observed that copper was leached off after Samanya Shodhana, Sulphur was leached off and lead was converted into trace element after Vishesha Shodhana. After Jarana of Vanga, potassium appeared as a minor element and lead and arsenic were leached off. After 1st, 4th and 7th calcination cycle trace elements were leached off only and phosphorous and aluminium were retained in the final product.
Conclusion: This study shows that the pharmaceutical procedures adopted for the preparation of Vanga Bhasma have a definite role in the formation of the organometallic compound at the end of the manufacturing process. The study can also give inference on the different pharmaceutical process which can bring about the addition of trace elements from different sources of organic media used during the process.
Key words: Shodhana, Jarana, Marana, Vanga Bhasma (Tin), X-Ray Fluorescence