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Review Article

Mater Sociomed. 2009; 21(3): 156-159


Detection of Mycotoxins in Selected Food Samples

Sukrija Zvizdic, Sadeta Hamzic, Ines Rodinis-Pejic, Fadila Avdic-Kamberovic, Sabaheta Bektas, Enes Sacic.

Abstract
Fungi from genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Alternaria and other are frequent contaminants of cereals, cattle nutrients and other herb products used in animal and human nutrition. Some species of fungi produce mycotoxins (secondary metabolites) that can affect animal and human health by contaminating food. The most significant mycotoxins are: aflatoxin, zearalenone, ochratoxin, trichotecen, fumonisin and palutin. One of their features refers to thermo-stability and resistance in certain medium. They are causal agents of mycotoxicoses of acute or chronic course, affecting the central nervous system, lungs, liver, digestive or cardiovascular systems. Disorders are manifested as poisoning, with special accent on their cumulative, carcinogenic, teratogenic and mycogenic effects. Their economic and trade significance is frequently addressed today. ELISA was used for detection of aflatoxins and ochratoxins in analyzed human food, carried out in accordance with recommendations of producer. The screening method was used to detect the quantity of mycotoxins measured in nanograms. Results are compared to the standards determined in the regulations on concentration limits of mycotoxins in consumed food, which should be harmonized with the norms of certain European countries. The period from October to December 2007 was involved by the research. A total of 300 (150-150) food samples were analyzed. There were 25 (16.6%) samples of flour and flour products, 43 (28.6%) samples of peanut, walnut, hazelnut and various pips, 23 (15.3%) samples of dried fruits, 15 (10.0%) samples of rice, soya and barley, as well as 15 (10.0%) samples of various spices, 12 (8.0%) samples of cocoa and related products, 8 (5.3%) samples of coffee, 5 (3.3%) samples of coconut, 3 (2.0%) samples of children’s food and juices and 1 (0.6%) of stock-feed. Analysis of 150 food samples proved the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations than allowed in 28 (18.8%) samples, while the presence of ochratoxins was not detected in any of 150 food samples.

Key words: mycotoxins, food, ELISA


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