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Dengue infection profile in Gujarat, West India: A recent report

Nishita S. Naik, Shiva V. Murarka, Dhariya Sanghrajka, Bhavini S. Shah, Rutvik J. Raval, Mandava V. Rao.

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Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease occurring in tropical and subtropical areas including India. It is manifested by symptoms like fever, headache, rashes, muscle, and joint pains. In our country, Gujarat is one of the highest infected states by this disease due to mosquito bites. Blood samples from such cases were collected and assessed for blood counts, serum transaminases, and blood smears from only positive patients using standard protocols. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) technique was also employed for virus detection. Of 1020 referral cases, from Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Jamnagar, and Anand districts, 184 cases were detected positive (18.03%) from October 2016 to December 2019 (39 months) being highest in 2019. Males had a high frequency (52%) of infection when compared to females (48%), affecting young age groups ranging from moderate to higher level. Furthermore, Ahmedabad district (57%) had a high percentage of infection, compared to others. Marked alterations were also observed with respect to serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, platelets, lymphocytes, and WBC counts in positive cases of 0–20, 21–40, and 40–50 year age groups. Reduced platelet clumping and severe thrombocytopenia (59%) in these cases are early diagnostic markers of dengue, supporting RT-PCR method. Thus from our study, we conclude that dengue infection is caused by various factors such as sex, climate, population, and environment. This outbreak is hence controlled by following health measures strictly, imposed by health departments in Gujarat, Western India.

Key words: Dengue fever, PCR detection, distribution, biochemical profile and cell counts

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