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Simultaneous Isolation of Gallotannins and a Related Phenolic from Mangifera indica Kernels and Assessment of Their Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activities

Mohamed A. A. Orabi, Soad A. L. Bayoumi, Hanaa M. Sayed, Enas A. M. Huseein, Amgad I.M. Khedr, Tsutomu Hatano.

Abstract
Therapeutic alternatives are being searched for trichomoniasis as a result of the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant infections. Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is one of the most important tropical trees since ancient times. Traditionally, it has been used as an anti-diarrheal and anti-diabetic, and recently its gallotannin-rich leaves and stem bark extracts have shown antiparasitic activities against various parasites. Aiming at exploring the anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Mango’s gallotannins, an aqueous ethanol extract of fresh kernels of M. indica was phytochemically investigated. Based on simple gel chromatographic procedure, ethyl gallate (2), a group of five isomeric tetragalloyl-glucoses (3–7), and a pentagalloyl-glucose (8) were simultaneously isolated from single fraction by a preparative RP-HPLC. The isolates were identified based on spectroscopic analyses and comparison with reported data. They showed structural-dependent inhibitory effects on the growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites in an in vitro investigation. Ethyl gallate and 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-â-D-glucose (7) exhibited elevated anti-T. vaginalis activity (IC50 = 1.3, 2.4 ́g/mL, respectively). This is the first report exploring the potential of gallotannins as trichomonacidal agents.

Key words: Anacardiaceae, Mangifera indica, kernels, simultaneous isolation, gallotannins, Trichomonas vaginalis


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