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Prevalence and Factors Related to Anxiety and Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Riyadh

Alanoud Suliman Alshabanat, Mohammad AlShammri, Amani Saleh Aldakheelallah, Majdi shadi salahie, Renad Faisal Althobaiti, Salma Mannaa Alanazi, Turki Melfi Alharbi.


Background and Aims:
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia and is a primary reason for mortality and morbidity. Patients with chronic medical diseases, such as diabetes, have psychological challenges while attempting to control their medical issues. This investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anxiety and depression among T2DM patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
From February 2021 to August 2021, this descriptive, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was carried out at three endocrinology facilities in Riyadh. Data were gathered from T2DM patients who visited endocrinology facilities for follow-up care. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Utilizing R v. 3.6.3, statistical analysis was carried out.
Data of 385 T2DM patients showed a Mean anxiety score of 6.3 ± 4.8 and a mean depression score of 5.9 ± 4.1. More than 20% and 15 % were in an abnormal category of anxiety and depression. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was reported to be significantly higher in females 56 (28.4%,P < 0.001). Anxiety and depression were the least prevalent in patients with a bachelor’s degree [26 (14.7%) and 15 (8.47%), respectively]. Income and marital status did not significantly correlate with anxiety (P > 0.05). Diabetic nephropathy was associated with a higher prevalence of anxiety.
In T2DM patients, anxiety and depression are linked to sociodemographic and medical health variables. Monitoring for co-morbid depression and associated risk factors is suggested due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in diabetic patients.

Key words: Anxiety, Depression, Diabetes type2, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

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