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Antibiotic Prophylaxis and Treatment in Early Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices Infection

Osama Alshoubaki, Ziad AL Darabaa, Omar Odat, Ashraf Qubbaj, Ramzi Alhyari, Sakher Alshare, Issa Ghanma.


Background: Cardiac implantable electronic devices – PM, ICD, and CRTs- are well-proven life-sustaining and the ultimate destination for many heart conditions. Based on scientific evidence, there is a worldwide incremental increase in CIED implantations numbers. Objective: Early infection of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED)– pacemaker (PM), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)– is a growing health challenge. We examined the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of early infection of CIED in a single center. Methods: This is a retrospective, single-center observational study. Data were collected from patients’ records from July 2017-July, 2019. All Patients received intravenous ceftriaxone 2gm before incision, Gentamicin 120mg pocket irrigation, and oral Amoxicillin/Clavulanate for 5 days post-implantation. Results: A 639 consecutive CIED implantations – PM (n=474, mean age, 64yr, female=49%), ICD (n=106, mean age 56yr, female=17%) and CRT (n=59, mean age, 54yr, female=20%)- were performed over 3years. The incidence of early infection was 1.9% (12 cases), female=41%. PM=5/474, ICD=5/106, and CRT=2/59. Three out of the 12 patients had total device explant due to pocket abscess; one PM had a generator changed; one ICD who had a pneumothorax, and the third one had reimplantation after ICD lead perforation. Nine cases were managed conservatively using saline dressing and oral Amoxicillin/Clavulanate, 3/9 patients developed a hematoma, 4/9 patients developed purulent suture line infection. None of them had infection recurrence on three months follow up. Conclusion: Early infection of CIED is a rare complication with multiple predisposing factors. Our protocol is reassurance and prompt initiation of management protocol to prevent and treat this issue’s sequences.

Key words: Cardiovascular Infections, Surgical Wound Infection, Cardiac implantable electronic devices, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Implantable cardioverter defibrillator, Pacemaker.

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