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Research Article

EEO. 2021; 20(5): 1928-1935

Elementary Educational Reforms in Pakistan: An Analysis of Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Dr. Muhammad Idrees, Dr. Said Saeed, Dr. Khalid Iqbal.


Education is the backbone of civilization, the most dominant tool of behavioral change and fulfills the needs of the society in accord with social, economic, ideological and cultural context. The aim of the study was to investigate elementary educational reforms in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to make aware the educators about the reforms at elementary level;assess the worth of the reforms; know about the various areas of the reforms; and examine the implementation of reforms. All the government elementary (primary and middle) schools’ heads and teachers(N=76476)of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa constituted population of the study. Multistage stage random sampling procedure was used to select a sample of 500 respondents. Data was collected through self-made questionnaire and analyzed through percentage, inferential statistics,and chi-square through SPSS version 26. The study revealed management weaknesses, data information system flaw; teachers’ non-punctuality, students’ less attendance and enrollment, non-existence of Online management system,ineffective utilization of resources, non-functional schools, and non-accountability system, no SLOsbased assessment practiceat elementary level,school based appointment policy through NTS, and non-provision of Lab and Library facilities. It was also found out that the change in the professional qualification would not strengthen the teacher performance. It was suggested that an accountability cell may be established to keep check on the whole proceedings, all the reforms should be done in the light of indigenous research and launched after pilot testing, workshops may be arranged for professional development of teachers and libraries, laboratories facilities, playground and ICTmay be provided to the elementary schools.

Key words: Education, Reforms, Elementary Level, Management, Curriculum

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