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Research Article

EEO. 2021; 20(2): 389-397


Content Analysis of Grade I-III General Knowledge Textbooks: Inclusion of STEAM Concepts

Aroona Hashmi, Zahida Javed, SyedaSaminaTahira, Shumaila Shahzad, Hina Amin.

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent in which STEAM skills are included in Pre-primary (grade I-III) general knowledge textbooks and curriculum proposed by Punjab Curriculum and Textbook Board (2019). Moreover, it investigates to what degree the textbook are consistent with the inclusion of STEAM subjects and concepts related to science, arts, engineering, math and technology. This study was qualitative in nature. Content analysis method was employed to analyze General Knowledge textbooks content to identify STEAM concepts. For this purpose, e-books of Punjab Textbook board was assessed and used. The content analysis framework was developed by reviewing the relevant literature of STEAM content and curriculum principles. The study revealed that STEAM is ignored concept at pre-primary levels (Grades I-III). The content and materials related to STEAM concepts are not included at each level. Only some of the content of basic level related to science and arts are included. The all five principles of STEAM Curriculum design proposed for pre-primary levels are not followed while developing the textbook. Concepts relayed to technology, engineering and math are totally overlooked and no link was created between arts, science, technology and related concepts. Therefore, it is necessary to update primary curricula in order to keep up with this international trend and address the growing need to produce innovative and creative minds as process and prosperity of country needs to rely on innovative talents of science and technology.

Key words: STEAM, Creativity, Principles of STEAM curriculum, Innovation



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