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Review Article

Why did Chikungunya Return with a Vengeance?

Hemant Jain, Kaushik Bharati.

Chikungunya (CHIK) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is spread by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. It is caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The disease was first reported from Tanzania in 1952. Since then, outbreaks have been reported from many parts of the globe. The first Indian outbreak was reported in 1963 from Kolkata, followed by others up till 1973. Then, after a gap of 32 years, it re-emerged in 2005 in an explosive outbreak in several Indian states. Several factors have impacted on the re-emergence of CHIK. These include rapid urbanization, increased air travel, loss of herd immunity, climate change, and a mutation in the E1 gene of CHIKV.

Key words: Chikungunya (CHIK), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), CHIK re-emergence, CHIK outbreaks

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