Background: Understanding the causes of neonatal and post neonatal death helps to develop strategies to reduce death rates and improve the quality of care. The present study aims to investigate the causes of neonatal and post neonatal deaths in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a retrospective descriptive study, addressing the causes of neonatal and post neonatal death in the NICU at Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, over 5 years, from January 1, 2012, to March 31, 2017. All the death cases in the NICU were included and classified using the modified version of Wigglesworth classification. Results: We have studied 204 NICU deaths from 2012 to 2017 (7.2% of total admissions). Out of all deaths, 52% were male, 84.8% were neonatal, and 15.2% were post neonatal deaths. Two-thirds of deaths occurred in neonates with abnormal Apgar scores in the first minute (65.2%). Most infants weighing below 1,000 g died due to prematurity (89.2%). Overall, preterm birth and its complications were the most prevalent cause of death at 51.5%, followed by congenital malformations at 33.3% and various specific diagnoses at 13.2%. Conclusion: Prematurity and its related complications are the primary cause of death in the NICU.
Neonatal intensive care unit, neonatal mortality, post neonatal mortality, cause of death.
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Zheng T, Weiss MD
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