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Assessment of oral health status during pregnancy

Yashesvi Ambardar, Savita M Vaidya, Lipikanksha Chandel.




Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is a unique period of diverse physiological changes which affects different body systems of mother under the influence of a number of hormones; and oral cavity is no exception. Estrogen and progesterone have been detected in human gingiva which are stimulatory to prostaglandin synthesis and thereby contribute to various vascular changes in gingiva during pregnancy. The study was aimed to assess the oral health status during pregnancy and to explore the correlation of the same between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to assess oral health status during pregnancy and to compare the status among three trimesters and with nonpregnant subjects.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 women in the age group of 22–30 years from the same socioeconomic strata who visited Bharati Hospital, Katraj, Pune. Approval from the Institutional Ethical Committee was obtained before conducting the study. The oral health status was assessed using three oral health parameters – simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT), and periodontal index (PI).

Results: Data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. A statistically significant increase in scores of OHI-S, DMFT, and PI was seen in pregnancy.

Conclusion: It is important to maintain good oral hygiene before and during pregnancy, so as to prevent the occurrence of periodontal disease and to avert the irreparable damage that may arise during the period of pregnancy.

Key words: Pregnancy; Oral Health; Physiological Changes






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