Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are worldwide problems. Many recent studies have shown a high prevalence of T2DM and VDD in Mediterranean countries including Jordan. Remarkably, VDD is more prevalent in obese people with inverse association with 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD). Nevertheless, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) point did not confirm that yet in particular the association with an obesity marker (leptin hormone). Leptin is involved in the insulin resistance (IR) pathogenesis and development of T2DM. Some RCTs showed that the treatment of VDD by 1,25OHD2D3 (VD3) may improve the control of diabetes and insulin sensitivity or decrease the risk of disease. Conversely, leptin levels were positively associated with 25OHD levels. Overall, taking into account the U-shaped curve, it seems that the association between VD3 supplementation is a dose dependent. In this context, it can be concluded that when VD intake is below, the serum leptin level will be low and vice versa VD supplementation may cause raising serum leptin as shown in this review. Therefore, we suggest further clinical trials wither to confirm or negation of existence of diabetogenic or anti-diabetogenic effects for VD3 supplementations.
VDD, diabetes, T2DM, vitamin D, leptin, obesity, insulin resistance.
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