Migraine is one of the most common causes of disability worldwide, with migraine aura (MA) being its predominant type. In this study, we aimed to identify and compare triggers in previously MA diagnosed patients to those who have not been identified with MA before but diagnosed according to a questionnaire survey distributed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study involves randomly selected patients aged between 18 and 50 years from all regions across KSA. A self-administer, an electronic questionnaire has conducted using the diagnostic criteria of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) and the Cleveland Clinic Canada headache questionnaire. Of the 4,140 potentially eligible individuals, 302 were not previously diagnosed with MA but were identified based on our questionnaire (Group A), while 71 participants were already diagnosed with MA (Group B). A significant linkage was found between MA in Group A with stress and anxiety, sleep disturbance, noisy places, exposure to bright lights, prolonged computer work, hunger, fasting, studying for exams, and menstruation. Group B experienced all the aforementioned triggers in addition to climate changes, certain odors, and the consumption of cheese, bananas, and hotdogs. A variety of trigger factors shown to be common among Saudi patients with MA. Providing awareness programs will help in effective monitoring of these factors and avoid serious complications, hence, enhance patients quality of life.
Key words: Migraine with Aura; Fasting headache; Saudi Arabia; Primary headache; Migraine triggers; Weather changes.