Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, defined by their ability to self-renew, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into a certain number of cells, presumably from its own germinal layer. MSCs therapy is based in their anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory (immunosuppressive) and regenerative potential. The aim of this review is to provide a clinical overview of the MSCs potential as a therapeutic option for orthopaedic diseases in dogs. A total of 25 clinical studies published in the scientific literature in the last 15 years on various diseases will be presented: semitendinosus myopathy, supraspinatus tendinopathy, cruciate ligament rupture, bone fractures and defects, and also osteoarthritis. All articles involved in this study include only diseases that have naturally occurred in canine patients. MSCs therapy in veterinary orthopaedic field has shown to have great potential, especially for osteoarthritis were all studies presented promising results. However, MSCs bone healing capacity did not reveal such promising outcomes on the long term. In addition, most of these clinical studies did not include immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and histopathology to confirm that MSCs have differentiated and incorporated into the injured tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge of canine MSCs biology, immunology and clinical application in canine orthopaedic diseases. Despite the positive results in its use, there is still a lack of defined protocols, heterogeneous samples and concomitant medications used with MSCs therapy, which compromises the therapeutic results. Further studies are needed in the hope of overcoming its limitation in upcoming trials.
Bone Fractures; Cruciate Ligament Rupture; Osteoarthritis; Semitendinosus Myopathy; Supraspinatus Tendinopathy
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