Historical developments and advancements in cesarean section techniques and logistics have reduced the maternal and neonatal risks associated with the procedure, while increasing the number of operatively completed pregnancies for medically unjustifiable reasons. The uncritical attitude towards cesarean section and the fast emergence of modern diseases such as obesity at a young age, asthma, type 1 diabetes mellitus and various forms of dermatitis have stimulated researches associating cesarean section with these diseases. Intestinal flora of the children born by cesarean section contains less bifidobacteria, i.e. their intestinal flora is similar to the intestinal flora in diabetic individuals. In children born by cesarean section, the good maternal bacterial that are normally found in the maternal birth canal and rectum are lacking, while the bad bacteria that may endanger the childs immune system are frequently present. In children born by vaginal delivery, the good maternal bacteria stimulate the newborns white blood cells and other components of the immune system, which has been taken as a basis for the hypotheses explaining the evident association of the above morbidities and delivery by cesarean section.
Key words: cesarean section, complications, obesity, asthma, dermatitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus