Introduction: Pneumonia is the most serious inflammatory disease of the respiratory system and also the most common infectious disease. Even now, in the 21st century, pneumonia occupies a prominent place in clinical medicine and public health. We are confronted daily with the increased number of patients, as well as the constant increase in annual mortality due to this infectious disease. Goal: The goal was to investigate the prevalence and pneumonia characteristics as the most serious lower respiratory tract infection, the incidence of typical and atypical pneumonia, hospitalization duration of the patients at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University CCUS. Patients and Methods: From January 2011 until December 2012 the study involved 100 hospitalized patients with infections of the lower respiratory tract at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases CCUS. Results: Among the most common infections the pneumonia is highly represented. Lung X-Ray in two planes, by all protocols, demonstrated with the auscultatory finding has the highest value in the diagnosis of clinical pneumonieae. A statistically significant difference among our hospitalized patients, compared to typical and atypical pneumonia, is in favor of the firsttypical bacterial pneumonia. Hospitalization duration ranges between 7-14 days. Conclusion: We believe that the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) should reduce the number of pneumonia caused by this bacterium. Recommendations for its use also come from the WHO. Until December 2012, WHO added 86 states in the PCV immunization as a part of their national immunization programs. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is safe and effective for the reduction in number of patients suffering from pneumonia caused by St. pneumoniae. In particular, the vaccine is a significant protection for children, who due to age and severity of the disease must remain under medical supervision. In elderly vaccine is important and useful as preventive measure, due to their biological characteristics and life circumstances which mark this group as vulnerable population, like the youngest, and can be fatal for them.
Key words: pneumonia, increased mortality, vaccine.