As fluoride is known to exert disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and compromise antioxidant cell defense systems, the present investigation was aimed at studying the role of a multi-grain diet composing of phytonutrient and antioxidant rich grains- ragi, jowar, bajra, maize, rice and oats in mitigation of fluoride induced metabolic toxicity. Albino rats were exposed to fluoride (221.043 mg sodium fluoride) through drinking water and fed commercial and multi-grain diets for a period of two months. Plasma and tissue carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were assessed in both controls and fluoride-exposed animals. Exposure to fluoride led to a significant elevation in plasma glucose, lipid profiles and increased lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys along with increases in hepatic lipid profiles. On the other hand the activities of G-6-Pase, hexokinase, plasma HDL-C and hepatic glycogen contents and antioxidant profiles have all declined significantly. When the fluoride exposed rats were fed multi-grain diet, the plasma glucose levels and hepatic G-6-pase activity were reduced with an elevation in hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity. In these animals the plasma and hepatic lipid profiles and tissue lipid peroxidation also declined. Additionally, the plasma HDL-C content, hepatic and renal antioxidant status were found to improve significantly in multi-grain diet fed groups exposed to fluoride. The results of the present study indicate that a composite diet rich in phytonutrients and antioxidant contents is beneficial in reducing the effects of fluoride induced metabolic toxicity.
Key words: Fluoride, multi-grain, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress