Background: In India a large number of patients have been suffering from breast cancer and with each passing year, the number is increasing. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an inexpensive, simple and highly accurate means of diagnosing both benign and malignant breast lesions. The procedure provides a rapid and non-morbid diagnosis before the operation which enables the patient and the surgeon to discuss and plan therapeutic alternatives in a rational atmosphere.
Aims & Objective: To find out the common causes of breast lesions, to evaluate role of FNAC in the diagnosis of them, their risk categorization for development of cancer and to conduct cytohistological correlation wherever possible. In addition the sensitivity, specificity, positive & negative predictive value of FNAC in breast lesions are carried out.
Material and Methods: The present study was carried out on 407 patients who presented with palpable lump in the breast in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Ahmedabad over a period of one year. FNAC slides were examined under light microscope after H&E, Papanicolaou & May-Grunwald –Giemsa staining and were categorized as Unsatisfactory sample, inflammatory, Benign, Atypical probably benign, suspicious probably malignant and Malignant. Cytological Diagnosis was correlated with histological findings wherever possible.
Results: Cytologically, the lesions were categorized in, Unsatisfactory 28 (6.87%), inflammatory 64 (15.72%), Benign 229 (56.26%), Atypical probably benign 8 (1.96%), suspicious probably malignant 8 (1.96%) and Malignant 70 (17.19%). Out of these 407 cases, 161 cases (39.55%) were available for histopathological examination. The most common benign lesion in this study was fibroadenoma 178/229 (77.72%) and the most common malignant lesion was infiltrating ductal carcinoma 51/70 (72.85%). The sensitivity and specificity of FNAC came out to be 98.08%, 98.86% respectively& positive & negative predictive value of FNAC were 99.35% &96.66% respectively.
Conclusion: The FNAC of breast is cheap, safe and highly accurate preoperative method for diagnosis of breast lesions. Preoperative categorization of breast lesions is utmost important for management of the patient.
Breast Lump; Fine Needle Aspiration (FNAC); Mastectomy; Fibroadenoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma