This study was aimed to assess the impacts of policy reform under the Indonesian National Health Insurance (NHI) program called Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN) on medicine use and treatment costs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) outpatients. A longitudinal time series design was conducted retrospectively to observe patients treatment and cost data to T2DM outpatients in five hospitals in Jakarta Province. The medicine use and treatment costs were compared before and after the NHI by Wilcoxon test. The 466 patients were included in the analysis. The implementation of the NHI had several impacts on decreasing medicine use indicators, such as the average number of medicine prescribed, non-diabetes mellitus (DM) medicines, the originator brand and generic products (P < 0.05). The cost of treatment, medicines, and DM medicines also decreased (P < 0.05). However, the cost of non-DM medicines did not change after the NHI implementation. The proportion of the cost of medicines to the cost of treatment was high; 70% of the cost of treatment was for medicines. In conclusion, this study highlights the implementation of NHI had positive impacts on reducing medication usage and treatment costs. The high cost of medicines requires attention to prevent inefficiency in treatment.
Key words: NHI, medicine use, cost of treatment, diabetes mellitus.