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SRP. 2020; 11(8): 742-746

Study the effects of smoking on selected oral biomarkers levels in chronic periodontitis cases in Al-Hilla city

Hanan Selman Hessan, Zainab Muhi Hameed, Doaa Adil Abood.


Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a hydrolase enzyme, a membrane-based glycoprotein produced by many cells within the area of the periodontium and gingival crevice. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that functions as a white blood cell growth factor. GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes.
Subjects and method: the study comprised 40 participate , 25 smoker chronic periodontitis , 15 normal subject as control , age ranged between (20-50) years old , this study carried out in periodontal department clinic/ collage of dentistry / university of Babylon , Hilla city , Iraq, 5 ml of unstimulated whole saliva was collected from all subjects to measure Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA).
Results : the result show there are highly -significant differences in the levels of(ALP and GM-CSF) between smoker and control
Conclusion: Smoking in chronic periodontitis patients has positive effects on levels of (ALP and GM-CSF) in saliva.

Key words: Alkaline phosphatase, GM-CSF, saliva, chronic periodontitis

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