Gadolinium (Gd3+) based MR contrast agents (GBMCA) are manufactured with a chelation process, where organic ligand molecules form a stable complex around Gd3+. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible impact of free gadolinium and GBMCA in ganglia (trigeminal and dorsal root) neuron cell cultures on intracellular calcium (Ca2+) since these agents could dissociate and lead to the release of toxic Gd3+ ions in metabolic conditions.
Ganglia cells were studied for responses to agents and nonspecific depolarization by high KCl+ in Fura 2 AM loaded neurons by monitoring the changes in [Ca2+]i using a microscopic digital image analysis system. GBMCA and molecular gadolinium doses of 0.1 mmol/kg were prepared with the same pH and temperature and applied to the cells.
Application of Gd3+, gadobenate dimeglumine, gadobutrol and gadodiamide to rat ganglia neurons led to significant decreases in basal intracellular calcium levels, while gadoterate meglumine administration did not have a significant impact. As expected, Gd3+ was more effective when compared tı GBMCA. While the impact was almost full with gadodiamide, Gd3+ and other GBMCAs had irreversible effects at different levels. The impact of gadoterate meglumine was neglectable when compared to Gd3+ and other GBMCAs, although it exhibited slightly gadodiamide-like effects.
In conclusion, gadolinium chelates released gadolinium and irreversibly reduced the intracellular calcium levels in identical TG and DRG cells at different levels.
Key words: Optical Imaging; Gadolinium; Contrast Media; Calcium Signaling; Dorsal Root Ganglion; Trigeminal Ganglion